|1592, May 3
||Jean Ribaut casts anchor in St. Mary's River near Fernandina.
||Santa Maria Mission established on Amelia Island.
||Fort San Carlos Built on Amelia Island.
||A shipwrecked Quaker & companions stop at Santa Maria Mission on their
way to the Carolinas.
||British king grants territory to Carolina including half of the Florida
||Battle of Amelia Island between Spanish troops and Governor Moore's troops
of South Carolina; Santa Maria fort captured and destroyed.
||Oglethorpe scouts Amelia Island, finding peach trees, orange groves and
deserted fields; names the island Amelia.
||War of "Jenkin's Ear" between England and Spain opens in
Florida with the killing of two Englishmen on Amelia Island. Oglethorpe seizes the forts
of Picolata and San Francisco de Pupa on the St. John's River.
||Spanish fail to capture Fort Williams opposite Amelia Island; 200 Spanish
troops killed in the Battle of Bloody Marsh on St. Simons Island, Georgia.
||Treaty between Spain & England cedes Florida to Spain.
||Florida ceded to England by Spain.
||Town of Egmont appears on English map where Fernandina's "Old
Town" is now located. Indigo is planted on Amelia Island.
||William Bartram, the naturalist, visits Amelia Island.
||American forces under Colonel Elbert land on Amelia Island. Elbert orders all island
homes destroyed in retaliation for the killing of Lt. Ward; the massacre at Thomas' Swamp
||Florida invaded by General Howe; Council of War held at Fort Tonyn, July 11th.
||Governor Tonyn received notice that by the Treaty of Paris, Florida is ceded to Spain
again. In May a convoy of food ships arrives at Amelia Island. In June, transports loaded
with Florida planters leave for the Bahamas and foreign countries.
|1785, November 19
||Evacuation of the English is complete.
||Don Domingo Fernandez' grant of 1785 is confirmed and is known as "Eliza" or
"Louisa" Plantation, the site of present day Fernandina.
||Fernandina, a free port, becomes resort for ships of all nations.
||Many planters settle on Amelia Island. Dr. Karl Sontag erects the first hospital in
Fernandina. Governor Folch asks Spain for aid and says if reinforcements do not come soon
he will give the Floridas to to the United States.
||Spanish Government replats Fernandina and many residents move homes to conform to the
new plan. President Madison calls a secret session of Congress and plans to take Florida.
General George Matthews and Colonel John McKee are appointed to organize forces in
Florida. John McIntosh is chosen leader of the Florida troops.
|1811, March 15
||Colonel Ashley demands that Lopez surrender Fort San Carlos. Two days later, the flag
of the Republic of Florida is hoisted over the fort. Under new articles, Fernandina is to
remain a free port until May 1815.
||Republic of Florida is organized with General McIntosh as the leader.
||The Embargo Act is repealed and Fernandina loses its commercial advantages. General
Thomas Pinckney leaves Fernandina and Spain again takes possession.
||George I.F. Clarke bargains on Spain's behalf for the patriots to return to Spanish
||General George MacGregor arrives in Fernandina. Fernandina surrenders to
sets up a new city government but lack of funds forces him to surrender Fernandina to
||Irwin wins battle with Spaniards and takes complete possession of Amelia Island.
Ruggles, Hubbard and Irwin join in a plan to retain Fernandina as a rendezvous for
smugglers (illicit slave trade began in 1808).
||Luis Aury, a general of the Mexican Republic, raises the flag of Mexico over Amelia
||Aury surrenders Amelia Island to American forces.
||A yellow fever epidemic ravages Fernandina.
|1821, July 10
||Spanish flag at Fort San Carlos is replaced by the Stars and Strips when Florida
becomes a U.S. territory.
||Nassau County created with Fernandina selected as the county seat.
||County seat moved to the community of Courthouse Ditch on Waterman's Grant.
||Fernandina selected as the site for a new fort.
||Building of Fort Clinch begun.
||Senator David Levy Yulee begins promoting the Florida Railroad to Fernandina.
||Population of Fernandina: 1,390.
||Colonel W.S. Dilworth and Confederates occupy Fort Clinch. Federal troops seize Fort
Clinch and the Presbyterian Church in Fernandina serves as quarters for the Union troops.
||Florida Railroad Company is sold to northern capitalists.
||Population of Fernandina: 1,722; many business improvements occur and a fashionable
girls school is opened.
||Ex-President U.S. Grant visits Fernandina.
||The Florida Railroad Company builds the Strathmore Hotel.
||Yellow fever epidemic ends longshoremen's strike.
||10,000 volunteer soldiers camp at Fort Clinch and vicinity. The Cuban revolution
promotes business activities in Fernandina.